About the Authors

Scott Aaronson

assistant professor

M.I.T.

Cambridge, MA

aaronson[ta]csail[td]mit[td]edu

http://www.scottaaronson.com

assistant professor

M.I.T.

Cambridge, MA

aaronson[ta]csail[td]mit[td]edu

http://www.scottaaronson.com

**Scott Aaronson**is a theoretical computer scientist and blogger. This is his fourth paper in

*Theory of Computing*.

Salman Beigi

graduate student

Department of Mathematics

M.I.T.

Cambridge, MA

salman[ta]mit[td]edu

http://web.mit.edu/salman/www/

graduate student

Department of Mathematics

M.I.T.

Cambridge, MA

salman[ta]mit[td]edu

http://web.mit.edu/salman/www/

**Salman Beigi**received his B.Sc. at Sharif University of Technology, Tehran in 2004. He is currently finishing his Ph.D. at the MIT Math Department under the direction of Peter Shor. The title of his thesis is "Quantum Proof Systems and Entanglement Theory." He will continue his research as a postdoc at the Institute for Quantum Information at Caltech. His interests include quantum complexity theory, quantum coding theory, photography, and playing

*daf,*a traditional Persian musical instrument.

Andrew Drucker

graduate student

M.I.T.

Cambridge, MA

add3993[ta]yahoo[td]com

http://andysresearch.blogspot.com/

graduate student

M.I.T.

Cambridge, MA

add3993[ta]yahoo[td]com

http://andysresearch.blogspot.com/

**Andrew Drucker**is a Ph.D. student in theoretical computer science at MIT, supervised by Scott Aaronson. He has broad interests in complexity theory, and also enjoys running, live jazz, and the game of Go.

Bill Fefferman

graduate student

Caltech

Pasadena, CA

wjf[ta]caltech[td]edu

http://www.its.caltech.edu/~wjf

graduate student

Caltech

Pasadena, CA

wjf[ta]caltech[td]edu

http://www.its.caltech.edu/~wjf

**Bill Fefferman**is a Ph.D. student in computer science at Caltech and at the Institute for Quantum Information. He started this research while visiting MIT, and continued it at the University of Chicago, where he was an undergraduate. His research interests are quantum computing and computational complexity.

**Peter Shor**is a professor at MIT. He is known for his factoring algorithm.